This is an analysis of how governments in origin and destination states manage the movement of people out of and into their countries, in particular migration for employment in low-paid sectors of the economy. In relation to origin states, it assesses whether outward migration is a policy priority, and if the government actively promotes domestic opportunities for its citizens, and in what way. For destination states, it considers the interplay between labour market characteristics - where businesses need or want to recruit migrant workers - and restrictive immigration policies designed to protect jobs for nationals, provide control to employers, and/or assuage domestic political concerns about demographic change. It also examines the extent to which the government regulates the migration process, and the extent to which it takes account of gender in the formulation of its migration policy. It should be noted that ILO and IOM standards on labour migration and recruitment provide limited guidance on national migration policy, which they largely consider to be the prerogative of states.